Atom, Electrons & Molecules works

This article covers the clear concept of atom, electrons, molecules and how the form liquid, solid & gases. How the atom and molecules works. To see the atom we required a very powerful microscope from which we can see this atom. Each and everything is made of atoms. How the electron’s negative charges balance the proton’s positive charges.

Do you now all the particles made from Atoms like chalks, ceiling fan, table, chairs, water bottle, pen, pencil everything is make of atoms. The atoms are tiny particles. This tiny particles called atom is made of even smaller particles. An atom which is made of even smaller particles.

In the centre is the nucleus which is made of small particles called protons & neutron. And there are electrons which more around the nucleus.

An atom is about a hundred millionth of a centimeter across. The nucleus of atoms is 10,000 times smaller than the nucleus. We need a very powerful microscope to see an atom, its nucleus, the protons and neutrons of the nucleus and the electrons around the nucleus for that we need most powerful microscope.
If we look the pencil through a microscope a very powerful microscope, can we see the atoms, its nucleons, the protons and neutrons of a nucleus and the electrons. Therefore everything made of atom.

We see that how Electron works- An electron which moves around the nucleus of an atom is a very tiny piece of electricity.

Everything is made of atoms and so everything has a tiny piece of electricity in it. But we don't get electric shocks because of protons. The protons which are balance the electrons and that's why the atom as a whole doesn't have electric charge. There are same number of electrons and protons in an atom. The electron's negative charges balance the proton's positive charges.

And when we need electricity, we get it from the electrons. When an electric current flows through, a wire, the electrons leave the atoms in the wire and move to other atoms. Do you know how many electrons do we need to light a torch bulb? More than a million million million electrons! These electrons have to flow through the wire in the bulb every second to light a torch bulb.
Know the next thing to know about is the molecule. A molecular is a group of atoms. In molecules, the atoms are linked by bonds. These are the electric forces that hold the atoms close but not touching one another. We know that each electron have a negative electric charge. And this electric charge produces an electric field around each atom. When there is an exchange of electrons between the atoms in the molecule, a bond is forms.

The water in our bottle has got water molecules. Each water molecule has two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atoms. And these solid – tables, chairs, steel, sugar, salt, all are solid. A solid is made of molecules which are arranged in rows and patterns. The atoms or molecules are pulled together by the bonds. A bond is formed by an exchange of electrons between the atoms. And when these bonds are strong, the solid is soft or may break easily. For instance, paper, we can tear a paper very easily. It's because the bond between the atoms is not very strong. In steel the bond is very strong.

For example a chalk dropped from our hand and broke into small pieces. The chalk is brittle because the forces between the atoms or molecules are not at all strong.

Know we see liquid – A liquid can flow. Liquids are – water, milk, petrol, oil, tea, lemon squash etc. In a liquid, the atoms or molecules are in small groups that move about on their own. The atoms or molecules are moving about in small groups. And that is the reason why a liquid can flow. It can flow and take up any shape. For eg. When the water in the water bottle it has taken the shape of the water bottle because its molecules are moving about in small groups. When we drink milk, tea in a cup, it takes the shape of the cup because it's molecules move about in small groups. When milks turn into ice cream, the molecules are no longer moving about in small groups. They have come closer and have formed rows or patterns. It means that when liquid get colder, the molecules slows down and become solid. A liquid become a solid at the freezing point. When the freezing point is Zero degree (0˚) Celsius. When liquid gets colder it turns solid. And when a liquid gets hotter, a gas is formed. At the boiling point of 100˚C, the water boils and all of it turns into gas. In a gas, the molecules are not linked together. They move about singly in all directions at great speed. And when gas gets colder its molecules come closer and again form groups and then turns into liquid. At the freezing point of 0˚C the water becomes a solid. And at the boiling point of 100˚C, the water turns into gas. It means that when it is hot, the molecules separate and move away from each other and when it is cold, the molecules come closer form groups and when it is extremely cold, they all come together and form rows.


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