Major Ecosystems in the World


There are different ecosystems in the world. To study the life on the earth first it is essential to learn about the ecosystem. This article will tell you about different types of ecosystem. This will let you know how is the life at different ecosystems i.e. at different places on the earth.

Main ecosystems of the world


regional climate interact with regional substrate to produce large easily recognizable communities which are called as biome. Climate plays an important role in distribution of biomes. Principal biomes of the world have been described as follows-

Forest ecosystem


It is the ecosystem which grows up in the forest. It includes animals living in the forests. These natural biomes in the recent years have been subjected to severe human impact and are being altered and degraded. The forest ecosystem can further divided as follows-
1. Boreal coniferous forest
2. Temperature deciduous forest
3. Temperature evergreen forest
4. Tropical rain forest
5. The alpine forest

Grassland ecosystem


Grassland occupy major part of the terrestrial ecosystems. Many early civilizations developed in the grassland regions. Man selected the major food plants from grasses namely rice, wheat, maize etc. Grassland occur where the rainfall is too low to support the forest life but is higher than that will result in desertification. The soil at grassland contains large amount of humus. Some of the important species classified according to the height of the grasses. Grass ecosystem is further divided as-
1. Tall grasses
2. Mid grasses
3. Short grasses

Desert ecosystems


Desert contains of bare ground or bush covered dry land. The annual rainfall in the desert is generally very low. Desert animals and plants are adapted to dry conditions. Animals and plants are developed such that they can survive with very less water.

Aquatic ecosystems


Almost 70% part of our earth is covered by water. It occurs in solid, liquid and gaseous state depending upon temperature. Aquatic ecosystem is quite different than others. In aquatic ecosystem animals or plants have to take oxygen dissolved in water. Thus they have different structure and nature. Aquatic ecosystem is further divided as-
1. Littoral zone (shallow water zone where sunlight reaches)
2. Limnetic zone (middle level depth)
3. Profundal zone (deep water where sunlight does not reach)


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