The Great Scientist of the Era Sir Isaac Newton | Read Short Biography of Sir Isaac Newton
Sir Isaac Newton was born on the 25th of the December 1642 at Woolsthorpe, Lincolnshire,(England),within a year of Galileo's death. He was a posthumous child of a farmer, and was physically so weak that there were doubts about his surviving his childhood. At the age of 14 he left school and went to home to attend the farm. But there he devoted much of his time and thought to mathematics, and as it became evident that he would never succeed as a farmer he was sent back to the school. Although he did not at first show any exceptional abilities, he had a test for reading, drawing and mechanical occupation and these faculties develop with his advanced studentship.
Newton gave the three laws of motion (of which the first and a part of the second were already discovered by Galileo) showing at the same time that these simple and self evident laws hold for matter throughout the Universe. He repeated galileo's experiment on falling bodies by allowing a feather and a guinea to drop down along a closed vertical glass tube previously evacuated. This showed that while in air a feather floats down slower, on account of the greater resistance of air , than the guinea which falls down faster, in air free space they both fall with the same velocity. This is known as the famous guinea-feather experiment.
Popularly but quit reasonably, Newton is credited with the discovery of gravitation. Gravitation was however, quite well known, what Newton did was a discovery the laws of its operation and sum them up in his celebrated Law of Gravitation. His law of gravitation furnished the theoretical explanation of the observation recorded by Kepler(1571-1630) and the rules enunciated by him for the period of motion of different planets etc. The importance of Newton's Laws of Gravitation lies in the fact that it provides a universal laws true for matter anywhere in the universe.
Newton has made very important contribution to mathematics by his discovery of the binomial theorem and by inventing the method of calculus. He is rightly called the founder of the mechanics of the Heavens. He was the first to analysis light rays by passing them through a prism, and is the author of "principia" (Principles of Natural Philosophy) in Latin and 'Optics'(a treatise on light) in English.
In his habits Newton was extremely simple and unassuming almost to the extent of being negligent about himself, so that he always needed for his very existence the care and attention of his relation and friends. This trait was shown even in his intellectual work. He did not publish his law of gravitation for about 18 years after establishment it, even after he was fully convinced of his pupil Hailey that he published his thesis. Newton died in year 1727.