Bharatiya Janata Party

Bharatiya Janata Party
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Bharatiya Janata Party

Chairperson Nitin Gadkari
Leader in Lok Sabha Sushma Swaraj
Leader in Rajya Sabha Arun Jaitley
Founded 1980
Preceded by Bharatiya Jana Sangh
Headquarters 11 Ashoka Road,
New Delhi, 110001
Newspaper Kamal Sandesh
Student wing Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad
Youth wing Bharatiya Janata Yuva Morcha
Women's wing BJP Mahila Morcha
Labour wing Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh
Peasant's wing Bharatiya Kisan Sangh
Ideology Indian Nationalism
(Hindu Nationalism)
Integral humanism
Economic liberalism
Free market
Social conservatism
Political position Centre-right[1]
International affiliation None
Official colours Orange  
ECI Status National Party
Alliance National Democratic Alliance (NDA)
Seats in Lok Sabha 116 / 545
Seats in Rajya Sabha 51 / 250
Election symbol

Politics of India
Political parties
This article is part of a
series about
Bharatiya Janata Party Joe Biden
Bharatiya Jana Sangh · History of the BJP · Organisation of the BJP · Bharatiya Janata Yuva Morcha · Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh · Bharatiya Kisan Sangh · BJP Mahila Morcha · BJP Minority Morcha · List of MP in the 14th Lok Sabha
The Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) (Hindi: भारतीय जनता पार्टी pronunciation (help·info); translation: Indian People's Party) is one of the two major political parties in India, the other being the Indian National Congress. Established in 1980, it is India's second largest political party. The Bharatiya Janata Party traditionally has supported Indian Nationalism and strongly advocates conservative social policies, self-reliance, free market capitalistic policy, foreign policy driven by a nationalist agenda, and strong national defense.[2] The party's platform is generally considered right of center in the Indian political spectrum.[1]

The BJP, in alliance with several other parties, was in power from 1998 to 2004, with Atal Bihari Vajpayee as the Prime Minister and Lal Krishna Advani as his deputy. It is the biggest constituent of the National Democratic Alliance which is currently in the opposition.

Contents [hide]
1 History
2 Organisation
3 Mass organisations associated with the BJP include
4 Ideology and political positions
5 BJP in various states
5.1 List of current BJP Chief Ministers
5.2 List of current BJP Deputy Chief Ministers
5.3 List of current BJP Floor Leaders of Vidhan Sabha
6 Controversies and criticism
6.1 2002 Gujarat religion communal violence
6.2 Alleged hate speech
7 List of presidents of the party
8 References
9 External links

[edit] History
Main article: History of the Bharatiya Janata Party
See also: Bharatiya Jana Sangh

Syama Prasad Mookerjee, founder of the Bharatiya Jana Sangh.
Deendayal Upadhyaya conceived the guiding philosophy of the Bharatiya Janata Party, known as Integral Humanism.
Atal Bihari Vajpayee, the first BJP Prime Minister of India (1998–2004).The BJP is the current form of the erstwhile Bharatiya Jana Sangh (BJS, Indian People's Union), which was founded in October 21, 1951 by Syama Prasad Mookerjee as the political wing of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh. The fortunes of the young party took a dip in 1953, when Mookherjee was jailed in Kashmir by then Indian Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru[citation needed]. After Mookerjee's death in prison, the entire burden of nurturing the orphaned organisation and building it up as a nation-wide movement fell on the young shoulders of Deendayal Upadhyaya. For 15 years, he remained the outfit's general secretary and built it up, brick by brick. He raised a band of dedicated workers imbued with idealism and provided the entire ideological framework of the outfit, but never seriously challenged the power of Indian National Congress[citation needed]. It did however groom future political leaders like Atal Bihari Vajpayee and Lal Krishna Advani, who were in the party when it was a constituent of the Janata Partygovernment in 1977.[3]

The Janata government did not last long. Morarji Desai resigned as Prime Minister, and the Janata party was dissolved soon after. The BJS had devoted political organization to sustain the coalition and was left exhausted by the internecine wars within the Janata Party.

In 1980 Atal Bihari Vajpayee, Lal Krishna Advani and Bhairon Singh Shekhawat, founded the Bharatiya Janata Party with Vajpayee as its first President. The BJP was a strong critic of the Congress government that followed the Janata rule, and while it opposed the Sikh militancy that was rising in the state of Punjab, it also blamed Indira Gandhi for divisive and corrupt politics that fostered the militancy at national expense. Leader Darasingh opines that Vajpayee thus "brought in Hindu-Sikh harmony."[4]

However, the BJP never supported Operation Bluestar, the BJP strongly protested violence against Sikhs in Delhi that broke out in 1984 following the assassination of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi by one of her Sikh bodyguards. Vajpayee was known and commended for protecting Sikhs against Congress-followers seeking to avenge the death of their leader.[citation needed] The BJP was left with only two parliamentary seats in the 1984 elections; the party, however, had established itself in the mainstream of Indian politics, and soon began expanding its organization to attract young Indians throughout the country. During this period Vajpayee remained center-stage as party President and Leader of the Opposition in Parliament, but increasingly hard-line Hindu nationalists began to rise within the party and define its politics.

The BJP became the political voice of the Ram Janmabhoomi Mandir Movement, which was led by activists of the Vishwa Hindu Parishad (VHP) and the RSS, and was seeking to build a temple dedicated to Lord Rama at the site of the Babri mosque in Ayodhya. Hindu activists believed the site was the birthplace of the Lord, and thus qualified as one of the most sacred sites of Hinduism.

On December 6, 1992, hundreds of VHP and BJP activists broke down an organized protest into a frenzied attack, and razed the mosque. Over the following weeks, waves of violence between Hindus and Muslims erupted in various parts of the country, killing over 1000 people. The VHP was banned by the government, and many BJP leaders including Lal Krishna Advani were arrested briefly for provoking the destruction. Although widely condemned by many across the country for playing politics with sensitive issues, the BJP won the support of millions of conservative Hindus, as well as national prominence.

With victory in assembly elections of Gujarat and Maharashtra in March 1995, and a good performance in the elections to the Karnataka assembly in December 1994 propelled the BJP to the centerstage. During the BJP session at Mumbai in November 1995, BJP President L.K.Advani declared that Vajpayee would be the Prime Minister of India if the BJP won next parliamentary elections held in May 1996.

In the Lok Sabha elections held in 1998 the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) obtained a simple majority. This time, the BJP (NDA) had allied with the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) and the Biju Janata Dal besides its existing allies, the Samata Party, the Shiromani Akali Dal and Shiv Sena. Outside support was provided by the Telugu Desam Party. The NDA had a slim majority, and Vajpayee returned as Prime Minister after a 13-day stint in 1996.[5] But the coalition ruptured in May 1999 when the leader of AIADMK, Jayalalitha, withdrew her support, and fresh elections were again called.

On 13 October 1999, the BJP-led NDA won 303 seats. The BJP alone had its highest ever tally of 183. Vajpayee became Prime Minister for the third time, and Advani became the Deputy Prime Minister and Home Minister. This NDA Government lasted its term of five years. Vajpayee and his economic team, led by Finance Minister Yashwant Sinha, continuing the policies initiated by the previous Congress Government under P V Narasimha Rao and Manmohan Singh, pushed through major privatizations of big government corporations, the liberalization of trade under World Trade Organization rules, opening the skies to commercial airlines, foreign investment and ownership and allowed private companies such as Mahindra World City and Reliance to build Special Economic Zones where property developers could build new cities with world-class infrastructure for factories that export products.

The BJP and the NDA suffered an unexpected defeat in the general elections in 2004, and failed to muster a parliamentary majority. A.B. Vajpayee was succeeded as Prime Minister by Dr. Manmohan Singh of the Congress Party, and its United Progressive Alliance.

In the 2009 general elections, BJP again faced defeat and its strength in Lok Sabha reduced to 159 with a loss of about 17 seats. The unexpected defeat of BJP is attributed to bad performance of party in Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Uttarakhand and Andhra Pradesh.

[edit] Organisation
Main article: Organisation of the Bharatiya Janata Party
The highest authority in the party is the President. Officially, the BJP constitution provides for a three-year term for the President. Recently, both Venkaiah Naidu and LK Advani resigned ahead of schedule due to factionalism and controversies. Rajnath Singh held this post from 2006 to 2009, he was succeeded by Nitin Gadkari. Beyond this, there are several Vice-Presidents, General-Secretaries, Treasurers and Secretaries. The National Executive consists of an undetermined number of senior party leaders from across the nation who are the highest decision-making body in the party. At the state level, a similar structure is in place, with every state unit being led by the respective President, who also officially serves a three-year term.[6]

The rank-and-file leadership of BJP largely derives from the cadre of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), which has millions of affiliates. It also maintains close links to other Sangh Parivar organisations, such as Vishwa Hindu Parishad and Swadeshi Jagaran Manch (an organisation promoting economic protectionism).

[edit] Mass organisations associated with the BJP include
Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad (All-India Students' Council)
Bharatiya Janata Yuva Morcha (Indian People's Youth Front)
Bharatiya Kisan Sangh (India Peasants' Union)
Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh (Indian Workers' Union)
BJP Mahila Morcha (Indian Popular Women's Front)
BJP Minority Morcha (Indian Popular Minority Front)
[edit] Ideology and political positions

Former Prime Minister of India and BJP leader Atal Bihari Vajpayee with Russian President Vladimir Putin in 2000. Under the Vajpayee government, the defence relations between India and Russia saw a new rebound with the signing of several key military deals such as the Sukhoi Su-30MKI, T-90S Bhishma, INS Vikramaditya and the Sukhoi/HAL FGFA.[7]The concept of Integral Humanism has a special place in its ideology, the BJP's right-wing politics include modern, conservatism, social conservatism, progressivism and enlightened nation which draws inspiration from India's ancient Indian culture and values. The BJP emphasize the role of free markets and individual achievement as the primary factors behind economic prosperity. To this end, they favor laissez-faire economics, fiscal conservatism, and the promotion of personal responsibility over welfare programs.[1] As per the party's constitution the objectives of the party are explained thus:

"The party is pledged to build up India as a strong and prosperous nation, which is modern, progressive and enlightened in outlook and which proudly draws inspiration from India's ancient culture and values and thus is able to emerge as a great world power playing an effective role in the comity of Nations for the establishment of world peace and a just international order. The Party aims at establishing a democratic state which guarantees to all citizens irrespective of caste, creed or sex, political, social and economic justice, equality of opportunity and liberty of faith and expression. The Party shall bear true faith and allegiance to the Constitution of India as by law established and to the principles of socialism, secularism and democracy and would uphold the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India."

Some of the professed goals of the BJP are:[8]

Anti terror measures - Revive the anti-terror mechanism that has been dismantled by the Congress. improve upon POTA to ensure it is more effective as an instrument of deterrence and a tool to prosecute offenders without innocent people being harassed; and, strengthen the operational role of the National Investigating Agency.
Special Courts for speedy prosecution - Special courts will be set up for speedy prosecution of those involved with acts of terrorism. Their trial shall be fair and justice will be done for the victims swiftly.
National identity card of all - BJP proposes to make it incumbent for every Indian to have a National Identity card. The National Identity Card will also strengthen national security by ensuring accurate citizen identity, thus tracking illegal immigration.
Food security - Provide 35 kg of rice or wheat every month to BPL families at Rs 2 per kg under an improved and expanded Antyodaya Anna Yojana. This will be available against 'Food Coupons' redeemable at both PDS and private outlets.
Energy security - It proposes to invest heavily in developing non-fossil fuel-based clean energy sources, especially for electricity production. Its goal will be to add at least 120,000 MW of power over the next five years, with 20 per cent of it coming from renewable sources.
Urban India - In pursuit of the principle of 'Shelter for All', 10 lakh (1 million) dwelling units for the poor will be constructed every year. For existing urban centres, basic infrastructure facilities and amenities of water, drainage, roads, electricity, environment and solid waste management will be enhanced for a clean and healthy city life.
Agriculture - Waive agricultural loans. Set a maximum ceiling of 4 per cent interest for agricultural loans to farmers from banks. Introduce a pension scheme for aged and helpless farmers. Create irrigation facilities for an additional 35 million hectares of land in five years: This will generate rural jobs as well as benefit farmers. Drip irrigation will be promoted along with better water management and use of check dams.
Keeping farmers interest protected with the help of National Land Use Policy before land acquisition for infrastructure.
Education for all - The success story of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, launched by the NDA in 2002, shall be strengthened, extended and concretised further in quality, content and support systems. Implementation of the mid-day meal scheme shall be revitalised on modern management lines. Akshaya Patra Scheme will serve as a model for this purpose. Universalisation of secondary education shall be speedily implemented. Special emphasis will be given to girls' education at the secondary level. Institutions of higher learning shall be given full autonomy, coupled with accountability, in real practice.
Article 370 - It poses a psychological barrier for the full integration of the people of Jammu & Kashmir with the national mainstream. The BJP remains committed to the abrogation of this Article.
Increase international cooperation - the BJP has adopted an ideology of increasing cooperation not only with India's traditional partners such as Russia, but also to enhance military ties with other countries such as Israel, the United States and France.
Health for all - Set up a National Regulatory Authority for private hospitals, nursing homes and special care facilities to ensure quality services, affordable fees and prevent/punish malpractice. While private sector participation in health care is welcome, it cannot become a source of unrestricted and unrestrained profit making at the expense of the people. Clean drinking water is one of the best barriers against common but often fatal diseases. The BJP proposes to make access to clean drinking water a fundamental right for all citizens.
One Earth, Green Earth - BJP wants to give appropriate importance to containing climate change. Lay importance on energy security and sustainable energy pathways by setting clear targets for energy efficiency and renewable energy.
Smaller states - BJP has a policy of having smaller states in India for better governance, such has Vidharbha, Telangana and Gorkhaland, having created 3 smaller states the last time they were in power: Uttarkhand, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh.[9]
Religious Conversions - The BJP wants to facilitate, under the auspices of noted religious leaders, the setting up of a permanent inter-faith consultative mechanism to promote harmony among and trust between communities[citation needed]. This mechanism will also be used for a sustained and sincere Inter-Faith Dialogue between leaders of the Hindu and Christian communities on all aspects of life, including the issue of religious conversions. The dialogue should be held in the spirit of the unanimous report of the Inter-Faith Dialogue on Conversions, which was organised at the Vatican in May 2006 by the Pontifical Council for Inter-Faith Dialogue and the World Council of Churches, Geneva.
The BJP stands for strong national defence, small government[citation needed], and Quasi-market (a market where only Indian companies can benefit) economic policies, but Integral Humanism has been its core philosophy and identity ever since its inception. The BJP stand on economic policies saw a sudden volte face in the mid nineties from a support of swadeshi products to the embracing of free market ideas. Another important factor is the ongoing territorial dispute over Jammu and Kashmir and the wars of 1947-48, 1962, 1965, and 1971, and recently the 1999 Kargil War. The BJP and its supporters feel India must remain vigilant against threats from Pakistan, the People's Republic of China, and elsewhere such as Bangladesh.

Economic policy under BJP-led governments at the state and center has been heavily focused on infrastructure building and pro-reform, which is congenial to Indian interests and to necessary conforming to international regulations (like environment laws) market-oriented economic growth without making subtle changes to the existing policies.

[edit] BJP in various states

BJP ruled states marked in orangeBJP is currently in power in five states (Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Chhattisgarh and Himachal Pradesh) where the party enjoys a majority of its own. In five other states — Punjab, Jharkhand, Nagaland, Uttarakhand and Bihar — it shares power with other political parties.

[edit] List of current BJP Chief Ministers
Raman Singh - Chhattisgarh
Narendra Modi - Gujarat
Prem Kumar Dhumal - Himachal Pradesh
B. S. Yeddyurappa - Karnataka
Shivraj Singh Chauhan - Madhya Pradesh
Ramesh Pokhriyal - Uttarakhand
Arjun Munda - Jharkhand
[edit] List of current BJP Deputy Chief Ministers
Sushil Kumar Modi - Bihar
[edit] List of current BJP Floor Leaders of Vidhan Sabha
G. Kishan Reddy - Andhra Pradesh
Timoga Taga - Arunachal Pradesh
Mission Ranjan Das - Assam
V.K.Malhotra - National Capital Territory of Delhi[10]
Manohar Parrikar - Goa
[edit] Controversies and criticism
[edit] 2002 Gujarat religion communal violence
Main article: 2002 Gujarat violence
In 2002, communal religion riots took place in Gujarat under BJP rule between Hindus and Muslims. The National Human Rights Commission criticized the government, pointing to "a comprehensive failure on the part of the State Government of Gujarat to control persistent violations of rights. A judicial commission headed by G.T. Nanavati, a former chief justice of the Indian Supreme Court, constituted to examine allegations of Gujarat state administration's involvement in the riots of 2002 said that there was no evidence to implicate either Modi or his administration in the april 2011, sanjiv bhatt, a senior IPS officer, implicated Narendra Modi in the 2002 riots.

[edit] Alleged hate speech
During his campaign on a BJP ticket for the 2009 General elections in Pilibhit, Varun Gandhi is alleged to have said that he "would chop the hands of anyone who dared to raise a finger on Hindus". This supposed hate speech drew widespread criticism.[11] Gandhi, however, has strongly denied making the